Building up Standard Work Using Job Instruction
In response to this post back in May, Dan said...
"Hey Bryan: Congratulations on being a dad and glad you're recovering from your hospital "adventure." When you get a chance, could you please elaborate on point #4? I'm curious about what you discuss in regard to standard work and also what you mean by "I also change the methods used in how to achieve standard work." I've studied the section on standard work on the TWI website, but I'm still not sure where you're coming from on this point. Standard work is something my company always struggles with and any help I can get to make the JI-Std. Work connection more clear would be appreciated."
I'd be happy to Dan. First we have to think about what we are seeing in front of us with Job Instruction. We have a four step method, a Job Breakdown Sheet and a Time Table for planning the training and meeting the needs of the business. What we don't understand is that these forms are the result of a lot of planning and many years of practice. To sum up this first point, there is a lot to learn beyond the 10 hr session that we aren't seeing.
So to be clear, I'm still working out the kinks on how this is all working towards achieving standard work. But I'll explain what I've learned so far.
Next, let's understand what is a Job Breakdown Sheet (JBS) and what is Standard Work (SW). First, a JBS is a reminder for the trainer to put over keypoints to a trainee while using the four step method to instruct. If you missed that part, that's o.k. Go to a 10 hr JI session and you will be up to speed! SW is typically known as three components: 1) takt time, 2) work sequence and 3) standard wip. If you know what takt time and standard wip are, great. If you are really using those concepts in your plant, I'd like a tour sometime.
The SW work sequence is what we are interested in here. On a SW combination sheet which is what most people associate as the form Toyota uses for SW, you will see a list of tasks down the left hand side of the sheet. Each one of these tasks could be a potential JBS.
Now, why is this important, you are probably asking? Because the nature of pull systems is such that hiccups in material flow will disrupt things, we have got to be fully committed to minimizing variability. If you are, then you will know that sometimes people don't do things the same way. JI is a good way to minimize that variability, maintain the standard wip and meet takt time.
So, most people will say that JI is the missing link to th Toyota SW model. What they mean is that JI is standard work, but that isn't really true. JI is critical skill that supports SW in that training is used as a countermeasure against variability.
Now, JI trainers do have a point. JI is a great way to get people who do the same job to get on the same page about how to do that job. My modification to the JI program will be that perhaps we bring in a group of mechanics and we have them rebuild a component or a pump. Each one will observe the other and try to write a breakdown sheet. Mind you, this is happening only after the group has gone through the first three JI sessions. This exercise of genba observation usually reveals the following results:
Joe - 5 steps
Randy - 8 steps
Lisa - 6 steps
Chris - 7 steps
Larry - 7 steps
Michel - 5 steps
I don't have to say a thing to convince them that they should "standardize" the task by using Job Instruction. But the different steps isn't really what convinces them, it is the observations that they make while trying to capture keypoints that wakes them up. The reason for this is that keypoints represent the largest percentage of those tribal knowledge elements that everyone claims is "their way" or "I don't do it like that!" When people see others doing the job better or worse than they do, they become very cooperative because they realize that either way, this situation is a problem for them. In short, the experience opens their eyes to problems that affect them personally.
This technique works on just about any group I've used it with. Finance, mechanics, assemblers, injection molding operators, packers, etc. It doesn't really matter. This technique was not detailed in the original manuals, but I find it very useful for tackling several issues as a team:
- excessive quality problems coming from a group
- no training system in place, but new hires are coming
- supporting changes made in a kaizen event
It doesn't work if you just let people fill out the JBS. You must have them go through the sessions in order for them to pick up the skill, the rest kind of takes care of itself as long as you use the standard JI follow-up methods on the progress and check results.
In fact, this is the standard work cycle that many companies are missing today. Finally, JI is a way to close the loop on the standardize/plan-do-check-act cycle. The photo below more or less sums up what the ideal state (at least what many think is the ideal state) might look like:
If you click on the image, it might look a little grainy. It is a hi-res image. Use your browser to zoom to the appropriate viewing resolution. I use the hotkeys ctrl++ or ctrl-- to bring web graphics to the right zoom level.